Computational Studies on Imidazo[1,2-a] Pyridine-3-Carboxamide Analogues as Antimycobacterial Agents: Common Pharmacophore Generation, Atom-based 3D-QSAR, Molecular dynamics Simulation, QikProp, Molecular Docking and Prime MMGBSA Approaches

Suraj N. Mali, Hemchandra K. Chaudhari*
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019, India

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© 2018 Mali and Chaudhari.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology (University Under Section-3 of UGC Act 1956), NP Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, Maharashtra, India, Tel: +91 22 33611111, E-mail:



IMB-1402, Q203 and ND09759 analogs were found to have strong efficiency against Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains.


To know the structural necessities for imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide analogues, we intended to develop the ligand-based pharmacophore, Quantitative structure–activity relationship models(3D-QSAR model). We also performed Molecular docking, molecular simulation and Prime/Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (Prime/MM-GBSA) studies.


All the studies like Common pharmacophore hypothesis generation, Atom based 3D-QSAR study, Prime MMGBSA, Docking, Qikprop, and Molecular dynamics simulation were processed using various modules incorporated within the maestro software interface from Schrodinger, LLC, New York USA (release 2017).


The common pharmacophore hypothesis(CPH) generation resulted in a five-featured hypothesis HHPRR, containing 1 positive, 2 hydrophobic and 2 aromatic rings. An Atom-based 3D-QSAR model was predicted for twenty seven training sets (a correlation coefficient i.e.R2= 0.9181,Standard deviation i.e.SD =0.3305, variance ratio i.e. F = 85.9) and eleven test sets (cross-validation correlation coefficient i.e.Q2 =0.6745, Root Mean Square Error i.e. RMSE = 0.65, Pearson R = 0.8427, P=1.21E-12) compounds employing alignment based on CPH. The dataset of thirty-eight molecules was allowed for docking into the active site of pantothenate synthetase (PDBID-3IVX) that shows H-bonding (Hydrogen bonding) interactions with residues Gly158, Met195, Pro38 and additionally shows further Pi-cation interactions with a residue like Hie47. We also obtained good simulation results for1.2ns study.


From the results, the generated 3D-QSAR model may be applicable for additional designing of various novel potent derivatives in the future.

Keywords: PHASE, IMB-1402, MDR- tuberculosis,Qikprop, 3D–QSAR, The Pharmacophore model.